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Il modo più semplice di mettere in comunicazione due computer dotati di scheda Ethernet in una LAN (Local Area Network) è collegare le due schede tramite un cavo RJ-45, che è lo standard per queste connessioni.
In ogni rete LAN di due o più macchine, ciascuna deve avere un identificativo univoco, chiamato MAC address, in modo da indentificare la sorgente od il destinatario dei dati scambiati. Nel caso di reti non locali (WAN, Wide Area Network), come la rete Internet, invece del MAC viene utilizzato l'indirizzo IP dei dispositivi.
Un primo passo per mettere in comunicazione più macchine è usare un Ethernet Hub (da non confondere con gli USB Hub). Un hub è un semplice dispositivo dotato di più porte I/O cui sono connessi i cavi provenienti dalle diverse macchine. Un hub riceve pacchetti di dati in entrata da qualunque porta e li distribuisce in uscita su tutte le altre, svolgendo in sintesi una funzione di ripetitore che ritrasmette i segnali ricevuti a tuti i nodi collegati.
A fronte di questa semplicità, un network basato su un hub presenta lo svantaggio di un elevato tasso di packet collisions, cioè di segnali diversi che viaggiano sulla stessa linea nello stesso momento, interferendo tra loro, inoltre consuma la larghezza di banda instradando ad ogni unità connessa informazioni non destinate a quell'unità.
Nel caso di una rete divisa in più parti, che non hanno bisogno di comunicare regolarmente, si possono usare anche i bridge. Un bridge ha solo una porta in ingresso e una in uscita, e guarda la destinazione del pacchetto entrante prima di inviare, e se l'indirizzo di destinazione non è attivo, non trasmette i dati,
Un Ehernet switch permette di superare queste limitazioni.Uno switch di rete è in grado di rilevare ed analizzare i pacchetti di dati che riceve, determinando l'origine e la periferica di destinazione di ogni pacchetto, e li trasmette in modo appropriato. Con la consegna dei messaggi solo per il dispositivo collegato previsto, uno switch di rete conserva la larghezza di banda della rete e offre prestazioni generalmente migliori rispetto a un hub.
Gli switch non sono in grado di unire più reti o condividere una connessione Internet, compito svolto dai Router, che collegano più reti LAN ad una rete WAN come Internet, smistando il traffico verso e dalla rete WAN. I Network LAN così collegati vanno a costituire quello che viene chiamato un Internetwork, ed il router svolge la funzione di gateway, cioè di porta verso l'esterno della rete locale.
Fondamentale nei router è l'impostazione della routing table, che è la lista degli indirizzi dei diversi network LAN raggiungibili dal Router via la rete WAN.
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